Migration, Security, and Citizenship in the Middle East: New Perspectives (The Modern Muslim World)

Migrant workers in the Gulf Cooperation Council region
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dripytanchrismi.ga/alternative-and-renewable/automotive-control-systems.pdf The papers in this collection document surprising trends in activism and organization among refugee communities. Clarke and Khoury each point to forms of political activism within refugee camps in Jordan and Lebanon, examining the nature of refugee protests as well as ways in which political activism may be channeled into non-political activity.

Sometimes these activities focus on the provision of services and the representation of refugee interests within camps, while other activism focuses on supporting the broader war. Zeno points to the centrality of narratives of humiliation and pride, thereby interrogating both changing identities as well as the possibilities for future national reconciliation But many refugees, as Sheldon observes among Iraqis in Jordan, will likely wish for nothing more than to forget politics and build new lives far from the destroyed homeland, raising the question of the lifespan of the desire for return and blurring the lines between refugee and exile.

Hundreds of thousands of these children have known nothing but war, death, dispossession and loss. Enrollment in primary education has dropped from 98 percent before the war to Significant research has been done globally on the experience of children in war zones that shows the daunting challenges for the next generation. Some of that research shows far greater resilience and adaptability than might be expected, however, particularly after the fighting ends.

Political scientists should be working now on identifying the conditions and the mechanisms by which these displaced children might be best reintegrated politically and socially in the years to come. Radicalization may not be the most important question for the lives of the millions of displaced citizens, but it is the one, which most interests governments around the world. Lichtenheld explores the underlying strategic logic of the decisions of militias in the Syrian conflict to uproot or displace certain populations.

Many fear, based on past historical experience, that refugee camps and communities would become prime recruiting grounds for jihadist organizations and other extremists. The securitization of the refugee issue, understanding the problem primarily through the lens of security threats and radicalization, carries many costs. As Pearlman has observed, radicalization captures very little of the lived experience of the vast majority of Syrian refugees.

Most are ordinary people struggling to rebuild their lives from the ruins of overwhelming trauma. Treating these refugees primarily as potential security threats, whether through the destabilization of host countries or through recruitment into terrorism, does a profound injustice to their real problems. Researchers must find ways to take seriously the security challenges posed by large refugee and displaced communities without giving in to the unwarranted securitization of these populations. A final thread ran through the margins of the workshop.

A significant body of new research has treated Syrian refugees as an available group of interview subjects for survey experiment research. This work is generally well intentioned, has produced important findings, and is the only plausible way to get access to Syrian opinion. Still, it raises troubling ethical questions. What are the ethical implications of treating traumatized, displaced populations primarily as objects of research? Are we qualified to conduct interviews with traumatized populations? Is it acceptable to conduct experiments of any kind on traumatized populations, or to use them for normal political science questions?

What expectations of aid or concern are raised by the simple act of asking questions? These fundamental questions of research ethics will only become more central to the practice of political science as the demand for research on and with refugees grows. Political scientists working in and studying the Middle East should learn from and remain constantly engaged with the vibrant literature and debates about research ethics in conflict areas.

Overall, the papers in the workshop represent an important window into a vitally important research area for the political science of the Middle East. Follow the conversation— Sign up to receive email updates when comments are posted to this article. You are leaving the website for the Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy and entering a website for another of Carnegie's global centers. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

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London: Routledge — In societies of settlement, too, immigration and transnationalism affect the ways in which peaceful coexistence is possible, and how identity and citizenship are negotiated and experienced. Immigration pathways varied by country. On the model created in Syrian cities, these committees contribute to coordinating actions and exchange information with other groups Napolitano This steamy, rundown capital would seem uninviting to many, particularly for second generation survivors of genocide whose lives are ridden with fear. Focusing on the lived experience of immigration policy and processes, this volume provides fascinating insights into the deportation process as it is felt and understood by those subjected to it.

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The current Syrian forced migration movement has produced deep changes in the Middle East migration system. Meanwhile hundreds of thousands of Syrian labour migrants were working in Lebanon and in the Gulf countries Shah Since the outbreak of the conflict in , Syria is one of the main countries of origin of refugees in the world, with more than five million Syrians fleeing their home, mostly to neighbouring countries.

The high concentration of Syrian refugees in the Middle East can be partly explained by the historical and previous migratory links existing between the countries in the region. Bilateral agreements existed to facilitate the circulation and employment — with restrictions — of people. Regional mobility pre-existed the independence of states in the region.

When national borders were created at the beginning of the twentieth century, this circular migration transformed into transnational networks. The settlement of Syrian refugees is also the result of an open door policy during the first two years of the conflict.

The settlement of these refugees is also linked to the development of increasingly restrictive migration policies by most of the European countries, with the exception of Germany and Sweden. European Union countries try to limit new entries, while the causes of departures are not addressed effectively both for those who continue to leave Syria or their country of first asylum Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq. Some new agreements are being implemented in neighbouring countries.

For example, since April , Jordan has adopted a new regulation to give Syrian workers access to the labour market, but it still concerns a limited number of refugees according to the Jordan Ministry of Labour, 37, Syrian workers had obtained a work permit by the end of The permanence of conflict is always a determining factor that leads to more departures. Meanwhile, the condition of exile in neighbouring countries leads to increasing impoverishment of the poorest refugees who have limited access to the legal labour market and resources.

The Syrians are mostly confined to the informal sector and very exposed to competition with other migrant groups, such as Egyptian workers. Their precarious legal status is also a source of instability. The combination of all these factors explains the continuing migration to Europe. The current Syrian refugee movement cannot be understood without taking into consideration the history of cross-border mobility in the region. Before , migratory circulation was sustained by the existence of well-established transnational networks. Circulation from Syria towards Lebanon or Jordan had different purposes: family visits, marriage or commercial activities.

If the presence of Syrians is well documented in Lebanon Chalcraft ; Longuenesse , the current Syrian crisis has shed light on the growing presence of Syrians in Jordan Al Khouri Historical links existed between Southern Syria and Northern Jordan — especially tribal and family links — even if it is difficult to evaluate their number before There was also a group of Syrians who found asylum in Jordan in after the Hama massacre.

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Some of them settled permanently in Jordan and opened businesses. They are well integrated in the Jordanian society and participate actively in the private sector. Migration policies of neighbouring states have dramatically changed since Syrians were enjoying relative freedom of cross-border mobility towards Lebanon and Jordan.

They also had access — with some restrictions in both countries — to the labour market. Both countries had signed agreements with the Syrian government to facilitate the circulation of migrant workers. Due to the mass arrival of Syrians after and the fear of their permanent settlement in the country, Lebanon suspended a bilateral agreement in — originally implemented in — on the access of Syrians to the labour market Longuenesse At the same time, refugees were still arriving en masse in the country, trying to find jobs.

If the conflict in Syria has led to the forced migration of hundreds of thousands of refugees, economic migration did not disappear. Nearly , Syrians were working in Lebanon before Chalcraft Most of them became de facto forced migrants, as they could not go back home. Jordan has also gradually implemented restrictive entry policies for Syrians Ababsa The opening of the Zaatari refugee camp in July can be considered a first turning point to regulate entries of Syrian refugees.

Then more restrictions were imposed. Today, even if the border is still officially open, very few Syrian refugees are allowed to enter. The main consequence is that the camp of Rukban on the eastern part of the border transformed from a transit place into a camp. One important element to take into consideration is that there is no clear distinction between migration policy and asylum policy in Lebanon and Jordan.

Like other countries in the region, they are not signatories of the Geneva Convention of on refugees Zaiotti Thus, both countries have no national asylum system. The massive forced migration of Syrians should not conceal the fact that other refugee groups who were residing in Syria have also been forced to escape war and violence. UNRWA estimated the total number of Palestinian refugees displaced inside Syria at just over , half of the total number registered in Syria , a large portion originating from Yarmouk camp in Damascus.

Those who are still in Syria, reside in safer places than their habitual place of residency some camps, like Yarmouk in Damascus or Handarat close to Aleppo have been subject to heavy destruction and blockade. Some Internally Displaced Persons IDPs were able to return to their homes, but the number of new refugees that moved en masse remains higher. The current conflict has had dramatic consequences for the Palestinian population in Syria.

Palestinians were enjoying access to education and the labour market without particular discrimination in Syria before Shiblak The outbreak of the Syrian conflict in consigned Palestinians to their stateless status. They lack legal protection transforming them de facto into illegal migrants subject to potential deportation towards Syria. Palestinian refugees tend to be transformed into asylum seekers by conflicts.

Jordan quickly decided to close its doors to this category of refugees, limiting drastically their possibility to escape violence from Syria. As written by Jalal Al Husseini ,. The absence of a legal framework concerning Palestinian refugees, who are forced to leave their country of residence as well as the political treatment of the Palestinian refugees by states in the region, raises the problem of secondary migration during conflict.

Refugees already residing in Syria mainly Iraqis and Palestinians face several limitations to their mobility and protection. Because Middle Eastern countries are not signatories of the Geneva Convention, they lack protection when they escape a conflict for a second time.

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Today, other refugees, such as Iraqis who were in Syria before , can face similar problems. The majority returned to Iraq, despite continuing violence. Others were able to continue their journey to Europe, North America or Australia. These populations, already refugees before the Syrian conflict, find themselves therefore forced to new mobility in a context where Syrian neighbouring countries are reluctant to give them asylum. Not being part of the Geneva Convention, they do not want to be considered resettlement countries. As most of these refugees are unable to move, even temporarily, in the Middle East, a growing number of them are seeking more sustainable solutions outside the region.

Jordan and Lebanon consider themselves as only temporary host countries and develop policies that incite refugees to immigrate to third countries to settle permanently and access a new citizenship Chatelard The Syrian crisis has reopened the debate in the region on the creation of new refugee camps.

While Middle Eastern states chose not to open refugee camps during the last Iraqi crisis in [2] , Jordan and Turkey took a different decision after Achilli et al. In Lebanon, no official camps have been opened. As a result, a myriad of unofficial refugee camps of small sizes mushroomed, where refugees are especially vulnerable due to lack of coordination of assistance.

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Most of the current Syrian refugee population settle in urban areas or already existing villages to access resources and develop their own social and economic activities in certain localities, thereby contributing to urban change and development. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, host states in the Middle East are reluctant to open new refugee camps.

Most of the refugees prefer to settle in urban settings or in agricultural areas where they can find employment. Lebanon, where the Palestinian presence — and therefore the camps — is marked by a history of conflict Sayigh and a complex relationship with Palestinian refugees prevails, has so far refused to officially open camps for Syrians on its territory. Political parties are also deeply divided on the Syrian conflict.

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This volume addresses new tendencies related to migration from a Middle Eastern and Mediterranean perspective and with an emphasis on security and citizenship. Contributors aim not only The Modern Muslim World. Free Preview cover. Editorial Reviews. Review. "Vital to host country economies and often systematically Migration, Security, and Citizenship in the Middle East: New Perspectives (The Modern Muslim World) - Kindle edition by P. Seeberg, Z. Eyadat. Download.

In Jordan, the camp of Azraq, built to accommodate , people when the number of arrivals of refugees was very high, is now largely empty. Unlike Lebanon, that hosts more refugees, Jordan opened refugee camps in the north of the country to control the flow of new arrivals. Turkey has also opened camps along its border with Syria. Most of the refugees prefer to settle outside camps to integrate into the local economy and develop links with the host societies, while refugee camps recently created cannot accommodate such a large number of refugees.

Jordan opened three main camps. Most of the refugees transited through Zaatari, and to a lesser extent Azraq camps. Transit camps Ruqban and Hadalat have been opened on the border between Syria and Jordan parallel to the gradual closure of the border. These transit camps have been created to enable Jordanian authorities to make safety checks before allowing refugees to enter their territory. The waiting time in these camps varies with profiles of the refugees.

Those who come from territories controlled by Daesh [4] have to go through a long security procedure, especially young men without family. Until the spring of , most of the refugees spent only a few days in these camps before being accepted or rejected. Since then, and following an attack on Jordanian border guards in June , only a very limited number of refugees were allowed to enter through the camp of Ruqban. Once accepted, they are then directed to one of three settlement camps.

If they have a Jordanian kafil sponsor they can move and settle elsewhere in the country. Despite current conflicts, refugee movements in the region are generally long lasting the Palestinian refugee problem started in and the Iraqi one in the early s , and the end of conflict does not always mean return for the entire refugee population.

The settlement of these populations generates significant changes of entire neighbourhoods. In an unstable Middle Eastern political context, the settlement of different refugee populations demonstrates the importance of forced migration in urban development and its articulation with other forms of migration such as internal migration and international labour migration.

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In Jordan, the physiognomy of the northern villages and cities has been deeply transformed by the settlement of refugees. The coexistence between Jordanians and Syrians is facilitated by the historical ties that bind the south of Syria and the north of the Kingdom. In some border areas, as in the northwest of Jordan or in the Beqaa valley in Lebanon, the effects of the protracted settlement of a large number of refugees had major effects for the local population. The poorest and the most marginalised populations suffer from the pressure on the rental market.

In the northern cities, such as Irbid, Mafraq or Ramtha, rents have increased significantly and are inaccessible to the poorest households. Some services, such as schools or the medical sector, are also affected. Many schools have adopted double schedules, which entails shortening classes to 35 minutes from 45, and means that teachers are now working overtime that they are not compensated for UNDP Zaatari camp in Northern Jordan, which has nearly 80, inhabitants today, is the best known for the settlement of Syrian refugees, and today is a makeshift city where prefabricated constructions and a few tents are juxtaposed.